Modern electoral legislation identifies the following main stages. Of the relevant procedure: the official announcement of the date of the upcoming elections. Nomination of candidates, the collection of signatures, the formation of election commissions. Election campaigning, voting day, counting of votes and summarizing the results of the elections.
On the stated topic of the speech, we will consider only part of the electoral process that goes beyond the framework established by law. I.e. violations of the electoral process; even more precisely – falsifications (since violations can be unintentional).
Analyzing the reliability of the results
The problem of analyzing the reliability of the results of elections and referendums existed in all countries and at all times. But for democratic countries this problem is particularly relevant. First, because after each election there are numerous allegations of gross violations of the procedure and falsifications. Secondly, because we know only a few trials on charges of falsifying the results of the elections, which in fact, ended in nothing.
There are several reasons for the lack of trials. First, the patronage of falsifiers by the customer of this falsification. Secondly, in most cases, it is practically impossible to catch the falsifier “by the hand”. If he put Smith’s ballot in a stack of Fox’s ballot. And the observer noticed it, the election Commission officer may refer to fatigue or an automatic error.
Types of falsifications
Before identifying the types of falsifications, it is necessary to determine what is voter fraud. Falsification of votes is a voter fraud act, aimed at violating the procedure for obtaining, filling in ballots and the voting process. Procedure for counting and approving the results of a vote or the process, defined for the registration of voters.
Minor irregularities in the organization and conduct of election campaigns, such as inaccuracies in the campaign literature. Methods used by candidates to force their political opponents to withdraw their candidacies. Or the inability of election commission members to enforce voting procedures in regular elections, but without intent, usually do not fall under the category of election fraud.
Cause election fraud
Most election fraud occurs because of the desire to illegally obtain a post in the local government, that ensures the right to appointment. Thus, election fraud is often associated with other crimes, such as: protection and concealment of illegal actions, corruption of local authority’s power and abuse of office.
Where does fraud take place
Electoral fraud usually does not take place in administrative units where one political faction enjoys broad support from the electorate.
In such cases, there is usually no need to resort to all sorts of machinations and violations in order to obtain a post in the local authorities. On the contrary, electoral fraud most frequently occurs where there are relatively equal in power political faction.
Where much depends on who will take this public office. This is often the case in elections for “patronizing” posts, which are the main sources of employment. Or in cases, where illegal activities may be protected from enforcement laws.
All actions of candidates, before the voting day, are PR Or black PR. The use of dirty technologies is actually legalized by law.
However, any actions of candidates during the pre-election campaign are considered as agitation. Falsification is only a fraud of the election results.
Attributed falsification of election
All cases of falsification of elections, in practical application, can be attributed to two categories: falsification without the participation of individual voters and falsification with the involvement of voters.